White Americans are both genetically weaker and less diverse than their black compatriots, a Cornell University-led study found.
Analyzing the genetic makeup of 20 Americans of European ancestry and 15 African-Americans, researchers found that the former showed much less variation among 10,000 tested genes than did the latter, which was expected.
They also found that Europeans had many more possibly harmful mutations than did African, which was a surprise.
“Since we tend to think of European populations as quite large, we did not expect to see a significant difference in the distribution of neutral and deleterious variation between the two populations,” said senior co-author Carlos Bustamante, an assistant professor of biological statistics and computational biology at Cornell.
It’s been known for years that all non-Africans are descended from a small group, perhaps only a few dozen individuals, who left the continent between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago.
But the Cornell study, published in the journal Nature Thursday, indicates that Europeans went through a second “population bottleneck,” probably about 30,000 years ago, when the ancestral population was again reduced to relatively few in number.
The doubly diluted genetic diversity has allowed “bad” mutations to build up in the European population, something that the more genetically varied African population has had more success in weeding out.
“What we may be seeing is a ‘population genetic echo’ of the founding of Europe,” said Bustamante.
The Cornell team hopes to study other population groups in search of similar results.
For example, Native Americans show even less genetic diversity than Europeans, having descended from a few thousand people who entered North America about 10,000 years ago.
That fact was reinforced by a larger-scale study, also published in Nature, led by scientists from the Universities of Michigan and Virginia who analyzed genetic samples of 485 individuals scattered around the globe whose DNA is recorded in a French databank.
As would be expected with the “out of Africa” theory, the researchers found Africans had the greatest amount of genetic diversity, followed in turn by Middle Easterners, then Europeans and South Asians at about equal levels, then East Asians.
Native Americans had the least genetic diversity of all, indicating that part of the world was settled last.
“Previously, we’ve been able to look at the genome and say, ‘This part is from Africa, this is from Asia,'” explained Virginia research Andrew Singleton to Wired News. “Now we can look past that and say, ‘It’s from this part of Africa or Eurasia.'”
A third study, published in the journal Science on Friday, may be the most fascinating of all.
Drawing on 935 individual samples from the French databank, a Stanford University team found deep traces of long-ago population movements, all originating from a “ground zero” in Ethiopia, Kenya or Tanzania.
For example, the Pygmies of the Congo forest were found to be quite close to the Bushmen of Namibia — but both were very different from most other sub-Saharan groups.
The fierce and proud Bedouin nomads of the Middle East actually have a lot of European and South Asian blood.
The Asian-looking Hazara of Afghanistan are correct in claiming ancestry in Mongolia, but the Han, the dominant ethnic group in China, may be disappointed to discover they’re actually two peoples, one north, the other south.
Native Americans have at least one closely related group in Asia — the Yakuts of eastern Siberia, who themselves are related to other hunter-gatherer Siberian tribes, some of whom build wooden teepees.
The Basques in northeastern Spain and southwestern France may be right to demand their own nation — they’re not closely related to anyone else. Surprisingly, neither are the residents of Sardinia off the coast of Italy.
As with the other large-scale study, the Stanford team found the greatest diversity outside of Africa among people living in the wide crescent of land stretching from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean to northern India.
Not only was the region among the first colonized by the African migrants, they theorize, but the large number of European and East Asian genes among the population indicates that it’s long been the human highway, with large numbers of migrants from both directions conquering, trading and generally reproducing along its entire length.
The Roots of White Male Rage
Amid all the largely disconnected discussions about angry white males, stagnant wages and inequality, fatherless families, and polarized politics, several striking linkages among these issues have largely gone unnoticed.
Tens of millions of white men have been expelled or checked out from mainstream American life – a reality with profound consequences for their economy, their children and families, their civic life, and their politics.
At least 20 percent of the nation’s 90 million white men have been pushed to the sidelines, either retreating or storming out of the mainstream of American life. They are not the men you see at work, who play with their children, go out with their wives or partners, are involved in their communities, and earn a living to save for their children’s education and their own retirement. What they do doesn’t register in either the gross domestic product or in the glimmer of a child’s eye.
Many of them are mad as hell. They may have a good reason to be angry, although their venom all too often is turned on scapegoats: women, immigrants, government, African Americans, and Latinos. Extremist, non-mainstream candidates have tapped these wells of anger, but most analyses stick to economics and politics, failing to see the many factors buffeting a sizable chunk of white male America.
We know that they are out there. But they don’t fit old stereotypes of failure, so we’ve had trouble coming to grips with who they are or naming the problem. Parts of their stories have garnered significant attention, but we don’t see that what have been treated as separate problems are closely related. To paraphrase Bob Dylan, “Something is happening, but [we] don’t know what it is.”
The following ten statistics about these seemingly unrelated phenomena are intriguingly suggestive of a broader story and the scale of that story:
- Today, fewer than seven out of ten American men work; in the 1950s, nine out of ten worked.
- Since the 1970s, inflation-adjusted incomes for the bottom 80 percent of men have fallen, with the most dramatic declines occurring among the bottom 40 percent, most of whom have less than a college education.
- Today, just half of men are husbands; in 1960, three-fourths of men (and women, of course) were married.
- As Barack Obama leaves office, only two out of three children live with their fathers; when John Kennedy was elected President, nine out of ten children lived with their fathers.
- Today, 43 percent of 18-to-34-year-old American men live with their parents (compared to 36 percent of Millennial women); in 1960, about 28 percent did.
- There are 36 percent more women in college than men, whereas in 1970, there were about 35 percent more men than women in college.
- In 2013, mortality rates among less-educated, middle-aged white men and women were about 20 percent higher than they were in 1998.
- Men appear to be 50 percent less likely to trust government than women.
- In recent years, there has been a roughly 20-point gender voting gap, with white men being much more likely not only to vote for Republicans but to express disillusionment and anger toward government; until about 1980, men and women voted roughly evenly for Democrats and Republicans.
- Membership in civic groups – including primarily male service organizations like the Masons, Rotary, Elks, and Kiwanis – have fallen by between one-third and two-thirds since the 1960s.
The likely economic, cultural, and political reasons for these changes could fill a book, but – needless to say – a lot has gone wrong for a lot of white men, a demographic that once signaled privilege and high expectations.
None of this, of course, denies the continuing struggles of women and people of color, including men of color. African-American and Latino men’s fortunes, especially when it comes to wages and fatherhood, have fallen even more. Men also still out-earn women on average (although the gender pay gap has been closing, due to declining average male wages and rising average female wages). And while mortality rates for less-educated, middle-aged whites are rising among men, they are rising at least as fast among women as well.
But the status of women and people of color and the legacy of eons of sexism and racism don’t make America’s white male problem any less real.
Declining fortunes among a significant minority of white American men is wreaking havoc with the nation.
With fewer working, getting educated, and earning enough to spend, our economy suffers. With fewer responsible fathers, our children suffer. With fewer men engaged in civic groups and more distrustful and angry toward government, our public life suffers. Still further, add in the suffering from rising mortality due to suicide and opiate and alcohol poisoning.
Playing to the inchoate anger of a sizable minority of white men who have been benched or stomped off the field is dangerous demagoguery that primarily benefits demagogues. Addressing each of these specific problems with specific solutions – good jobs, wages, education, and public health, and encouraging responsible fatherhood and civic involvement – is what will help these men, not to mention the nation and the nonwhite and female objects of their anger.
The Six Kinds of Woke White People
Now that Democrats.. the elites.. whomever are fully aware that its general success hinges on the black vote, the race for the party’s presidential nomination has evolved into a spectacular game of one-upmanship between Cinderellas trying to convince us who’s the wokest white person of them all. It seems like it was only yesterday that black voters had to resort to arm-twisting to even get a candidate to say “black lives matter,” and now all of the Caucasian candidates are arguing over how they’re going to make it rain negro reparation checks when they become president.
While this newfound brand of woke whiteness is a stunning turnaround, they are not all the same. There are levels to this shit. So for the uninitiated, we present the six kinds of woke wypipo.
These kinds of white people are annoyingly woke. They wear cornrows, dashikis and study African culture like they’re making a sequel to Hidden Colors. White woketeps refer to Africa as “the motherland” and ever since they took a college trip to Ghana, they bring it up at every opportunity.
The reason they are annoying is that they’re really, really racist … against white people. They would join the Nation of Islam if it was allowed. In fact, a white woketep is the only white person I’ve ever heard in my life refer to pork as “swine.”
However, they’re racist against black people, too. They speak to every black person in white people’s ebonics, love talking about the hood, and only date black people. They aspire to resemble the caricature of blackness they have created in their minds.
How to tell a white woketep: They sprinkle phrases like “Asé” into the conversation and tell you they’re “More Malcolm than Martin.” They tell you their parents are really racist even though their dad is usually a dentist who raised them in the suburbs. They assure you that their other homies let them say the n-word.
Examples: MC Serch, Rachel Dolezal, most Kardashians, Elizabeth Warren
These people are aware of the systematic injustices suffered by the communities of color. They are insistent on using their privilege to right the wrongs of the capitalist system and have a Masters degree in Oppressive Studies from Yale, which is how they got their job as the community development director at the nonprofit after-school program that serves inner-city, urban, disadvantaged, unprivileged youths by teaching them coding. They drive Subarus exclusively and only wear sandals.
They are agnostic but they know the words to negro spirituals and are diligently working to make Juneteenth a national holiday. These are the new-school hippies who occupy Wall Street and sign up for the “resistance.” They also don’t like deodorant unless it is all natural.
How to tell a Safety Pinterest: They have a Black Lives Matter bumper sticker on their Subaru and they kneel during the national anthem. They refer to themselves as an “ally.” They are vegan but they smoke clove cigarettes.
Examples: Beto O’Rourke, former Teen Vogue staffers, Mika Brzezinski, the rest of the Kardashians
These are people who need you to understand that inequality is a result of a capitalist society and economics. It’s not racism, it’s corporate greed. It’s the “one percent.” It’s math. These people believe structural inequality can be cured by addressing the wage gap, education funding, criminal justice reform and the school-to-prison pipeline.
They want Medicare-for-all, a $25 minimum wage, Wall Street reform and free college tuition but they don’t support reparations because it would cost too much. They also think white women are oppressed and often talk about “dismantling the patriarchy.” When they are in a bind, they will acknowledge the existence of racism for political expedience and quickly move on. They will remind you who won the popular vote. They will adopt a black child but won’t take the time to learn how to do their child’s hair.
How to tell a dismantler: It may take you a while to notice, but you will eventually notice that Dismantlers never ever say the word “black people.” They say “people of color” or “non-white people. They wear pink hats and own at least one pair of Birkenstocks. They carry their adopted black child in their arms until the kid is 13 years old.
Examples: Bernie Sanders, Kirsten Gillibrand, people who were “with her.”
These people are not noticeable. They have reasonable positions on most things and they acknowledge that there is bias in America’s system. Instead of talking, they listen a lot and use critical thinking. Even when they hold opposing ideas, they are willing to change their minds.
When it comes to racism, they try to learn because they understand that they live in a different America. They probably voted for Obama and they believe in the promise of America but they also worry about their 401(k). They would never kneel during the national anthem because they honor the troops but believe that everyone has the right to do so. Most of their friends are white but they attend a mixed church and low-key know more about hip-hop than you do. They like Aerosmith, first responders and Jeru the Damaja.
How to Recognize Cool-Ass White People: They wear Vans or Chuck Taylors. They always ask you if you want to hang out or visit their church. You run into them at a J. Cole concert and they wonder why you’re surprised to see them. They own a kayak.
Examples: Eminem, Jon Stewart, the white dude in Run the Jewels
These are just regular old, run-of-the-mill, no-washcloth-using white people. These are the people for whom scrapbooking, Swiffer Wet Jets and white Jesus were created. These Great Value Americans are usually conservative but they are real conservatives. They have lived in a bubble of privilege so long that their only real concerns are low taxes and small government. They deify the founding fathers, Ronald Reagan and George Will. They won’t argue that racism exists, they just think that education, family and hard work is the answer because store brand white people can get custom made Timberlands that come with bootstraps by which one can pull themselves up. Still, they donate money to charities that help the poor and downtrodden—mostly animal shelters and cancer funds, but still… it’s something.
These people definitely don’t think they’re racist because they hired a nice Mexican guy to cut the grass and they often wonder what Martin Luther King Jr. would have thought. But when their daughter told them that she was dating a guy named LaMont, they prayed to white Jesus it was a French guy she met during her layover in Paris on the way back from Ghana. When they found out it was a colored fella, they wept.
Also, that Mexican gardener is really Dominican.
How to spot Store Brand White People: They’re the easiest to spot because they don’t tint their car windows, their house always has an oversized American flag out front and they still have a Bush/Cheney Bumper sticker. Store brand white women are the ones who secretly voted for Trump but are too scared to actually admit it publicly. They keep a lot of shit in the attic. Store brand white people love attics. It’s where they keep their scrapbooks. Also, store brand white people usually take their dogs with them everywhere they go.
Examples: Paul Ryan, Taylor Swift, Jimmy Fallon, people who buy Skechers, any white woman named Frances.
Trumplestiltskins are essentially woke trolls. These are the Trump followers who believe in the “deep state” Q-Anon and false flags. Most Trumplestiltskins get news from Infowars, Brietbart and the Daily Caller because Fox News is too mainstream for them. Plus there’s a liberal agenda that they read about in the 33,000 deleted Hillary Clinton emails to George Soros setting up the Uranium One deal in Benghazi with the liberal elite. But leftists don’t want you to hear that because they want to keep you on the Democratic plantation.
Trumplestiltskins are the wokest of the woke because they can dismiss any fact that doesn’t fit their narrative by accusing you of falling for the fake news from the liberal agenda. Trumplestiltksins are ultimately smarter than special prosecutors, judges, journalists, eyewitnesses, scientists, photographic proof, and especially “leftists.” In Trumplestiltskinian, a “leftist” is the demonic result of Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez fucking one of those Satanic people who knows algebra. They are not quite white supremacists they just want to control the borders, protect the Constitution (because Jesus wrote it), stop Sharia law and Make America Great Again… oh, and keep white people supreme.
How to spot a Trumplestiltskin: The Trumplestilskin uniform is a MAGA hat (or alternately, a University of Alabama hat), a Dri-Fit polo, wraparound sunglasses with a neck harness, straight leg jeans, camouflage pants or chinos, and New Balance running shoes. Or you can just do the secret Trumplestiltskin call:
Why the ‘End’ of White Men Is Actually Good for White Men
Instead of mourning, it’s time for middle-class white dudes to look on the bright side. Not only do they get a more inclusive, fairer nation, they also get these priceless benefits that come along with the loss of their once vaunted power.
1. They’ll probably live longer. The life-span for white men without a college education is actually shrinking, while Hispanic males are the longest-lived American men. For affluent white guys, being in control all the time takes a toll on the heart; for poorer white men, rage at not having what you think is rightfully yours by virtue of your skin color can lead to lethally reckless behavior. The sooner white men let go of the anxiety and resentment that accompany unearned privilege, the healthier and happier we’ll likely be.
2. They can finally stop the unhelpful whining about their white guilt. Of course, the fact that white men don’t have the power they once did doesn’t mean they don’t still benefit from unmerited privilege. But perhaps this dramatic loss of influence is a good opportunity to listen to anti-racism advocates like Tim Wise. Guilt over what their ancestors did is useless and self-indulgent, Wise says; instead, we “have to take some responsibility for the unearned advantage, which means working to change the society that bestows that advantage.” So quit it with the sulking and the navel-gazing about whether your ancestors’ sins apply to you.
3. Women –- and everyone else –- will be more likely to tell them the truth. The more privilege you have (or are perceived to have) the riskier it is for someone who doesn’t share that privilege to be honest with you. Anglican feminist theologian Janet Morley suggested that when the privileged use power to dominate, they force the less privileged to use their “weakness to manipulate.” Most people dislike being manipulated — and yet a system in which women and non-whites lack equal access to power is one in which honesty often comes with dangerously high risks. We soothe people whom we fear, and we flatter when we’ve got few other options to get what we need. The more power white men hold in public and private, the less likely that they can fully trust the smiles and the nods and the “yesses” of those who don’t share their privilege. Put simply, when we lose our privilege, we’ll start to be able to trust what we hear.
4. They can –- maybe –- trust their successes are due to their merit. One of the most pernicious tropes in the affirmative action debate is that minority and gender-based preferences in admissions or hiring make it impossible for non-whites and women to be sure of their own abilities. For two generations, angry white men have complained that they aren’t given any special benefits by the state. This lament, of course, ignores what’s obvious to everyone who isn’t wearing blinders. (Privilege conceals itself best from those who possess it.) The benefits of whiteness and maleness are so numerous (Peggy McIntosh’s famous 50 point list hardly covers them all) that most white men just can’t see them. Though middle-aged white men like may never know just how much of their success is due to unmerited advantage, the eclipsing of their power means that their sons and grandsons have at least a better chance of growing up in a world where their triumphs will be due solely to their merits, not their skin or their sex.
The choice is stark. On the one hand, they can retreat, as conservative columnist John Sullivan warned they might, into “defensive minority consciousness… defending every item of privilege and resenting every loss.” That’s a recipe not only for electoral defeat but also increasingly bitter alienation from the two-thirds of our fellow Americans who aren’t white men.
On the other hand, they can begin to let go of this self-imposed burden that hasn’t made them happy and has frequently served to make everyone else justifiably miserable. It may not be a brave new world, but it’s a better and fairer one for being browner and more female. The sooner they acknowledge that, the more content — and fully human — they’ll get to be.